References: Books & Websites

Major References:

Brockman, C. Frank, Trees of North America, Golden Press, 1986.

Gunther, Erna, Ethnobotany of Western Washington, University of Washington Press, 1973

Hamilton, Clement W. and Kruckeberg, Arthur. R., conveners, Woody Northwestern Native Plants for Urban Landscapes: Ornament and Restoration in the Native Idiom, Seminar in Horticultural Taxonomy and Landscape Plant Selection, Center for Urban Horticulture, College of Forest Resources, University of Washington, May 1994.

Hitchcock, C. Leo and Arthur Cronquist, Marion Crowley and J.W. Thompson, Vascular Plants of the Pacific Northwest, University of Washington Press, 1969.

Kruckeberg, Arthur R., Gardening with Native Plants of the Pacific Northwest, University of Washington Press, 1982. (A newer edition is available)

Martin, Alexander C., Herbert S. Zim and Arnold L. Nelson, American Wildlife and Plants, Dover Publications, 1951

Pojar, Jim and Andy MacKinnon, Plants of the Pacific Northwest Coast, Lone Pine Publishing, 1994.

Sunset Western Garden Book, Sunset Publishing Corporation, 1995 (A newer edition is available)

Turner, Mark & Phyllis Gustafson, Wildflowers of the Pacific Northwest. Timber Press, Inc. Portland, Oregon, 2006.

Van Pelt, Robert, Forest Giants of the Pacific Coast, University of Washington Press, 2001. Burke Museum of Natural History and Culture, University of Washington Herbarium website.  Wikipedia  E-Flora BC: Electronic Atlas of the Plants of British Columbia, USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service, Plants Database  Jepson Flora Project & USDA Fire Effects Information System., Plants for a Future Database., The Lady Bird Johnson Wildflower Center, University of Texas at Austin


Other References:

Adams, A.B., and Clement W. Hamilton, editors, The Decline of the Pacific Madrone, Current Theory and Research Directions, Proceedings of the April 28, 1995 Symposium, Center for Urban Horticulture, University of Washington, 1999.

Bressette, Dana Kelley, Determining Causes of Decline of Pacific Madrone in Urban Landscapes of the Pacific Northwest, Master’s Thesis University of Washington, 1995

Burns, R.M. and B.H. Honkala, tech coords. 1990. Silvics of North America: 1. Conifers 2.Hardwoods,

Byther, Ralph and Carrie Foss, Art Antonelli, Ray Maleike, and Van Bobbit, Landscape Plant Problems, Washington State University, 1996.

Coombes, Allen J. Dictionary of Plant Names, Timber Press, 1985.

Franklin, Jerry F. and C. T. Dyrness, Natural Vegetation of Oregon and Washington, Oregon State University Press, 1988

Hartman, Dale E. and Hudson T Hartmann, Plant Propagation, Principles and Practices, 3rd Ed. Prentice-Hall, Inc, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 1975.

Heywood, V.H., Flowering Plants of the World, Prentice Hall, Inc. 1978.

Love, Rhoda, The Western Black-fruited Hawthorns: More Complexity than Formerly Suspected, Botanical Electronic News, No.176, Nov 11, 1997, @

Matthews, Daniel, Cascade Olympic Natural History, A Trailside Reference, Raven Editions in conjunction with the Portland Audubon Society, 1990. Kwantlen Polytechnic University, School of Horticulture Plant Database, Langley, B.C. Native American Ethnobotanical Database, University of Michigan. Woodbrook Native Plant Nursery, Gig Harbor Washington. Dictionary of Botanical Epithets. Washington Department of Natural Resources website. The Gymnosperm Database. John Day Fossil Beds National Monument website. Woody Plant Seed Manual.   Wallace W. Hansen Native Plant Nursery, Salem, Oregon.  Turner Photographs.   Rainy Side Gardeners.  Washington Native Plant Society